shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
shiyakujin no hokoraTable of ContentsIndexBibliographyBackForward
ToCminzoku shintôsekai-kanDefinitions of terms

Definitions of terms – 08 / 30 / 2020
Here is a list of some of the terms used when discussing a folkway, folklore or a folk religion
Values – The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Beliefs – Statements people hold to be true; arise from values
Norms – Expectations or rules of behavior that develop to reflect and enforce values
Internalized – In societal context norms are quite well defined and tend to be part of person's life style
Integrated – System of norms reflects roles & goals of society and tend to be related to person's everyday life and expectations
Prescriptive – What should be done
Proscriptive – What should not be done
Taboo – A norm so strong that it brings revulsion if violated
Folkways –Social, traditional and customary ways of living. Traditional behaviour of a people. Norms that are not strictly enforced. (violation = misdemeanor)
Mores – Norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought to be essential to core values. (violation = felony)
Register of Experience – The domain from which metaphorical explanation of life happenings is drawn
Sanctions – An expression of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Negative Sanction – An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to severe formal reactions such as a prison sentence, banishment, or death
Positive Sanction – A reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
Immediate and Certain Sanctions – In traditional folk society a majority of norms are kept at folkway level — sanctioning is often carried out by family or other significant others
When Deviance Occurs – It is seen as only one aspect of an individual's behavior. A person is not defined by the group on the basis of that behavior alone

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