shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
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ToCminzoku shintôsekai-kanmatsurisaishi shûzoku

saishi shûzoku (Festival Practices) – 09 / 05 / 2015
saishi shûzoku さいししゅうぞく 祭祀州俗
sai (ritual, offer prayers, celebrate, deify, enshrine, worship)
shi (enshrine, worship)
saishi (ritual, religious service, festival)
shû (state, province)
zoku (customs)
shûzoku (local customs)

❖ Traditions, practices, and customs related to festivals and the rituals that form part of them
Basic Format of matsuri – Usually has four elements: 1) harae; 2) shinsen; (3) norito; and (4) naorai. It may also include other events.
harae はらえ
(purification,exorcism)

❖ Purification, exorcism
❖ Also called harai
harai はらい
祓い
(purification,exorcism)

hara.i (purification,exorcism)
shinsen しんせん 神饌
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
sen (food, offerings)

❖ Food offerings presented to kami
norito – An offering of prayers addressed to the kami. norito are beautiful words – poetry. The key word there is poetry, which gives us humans a way to point at that which can be experienced, but which is inexpressible by language – that which is a mystery. Mystery is not that which is not told, that's just a secret. Mystery is that which can't be told. (See norito)
naorai なおらい 直会
nao.ra (straightaway, honesty, frankness)
i (meeting, meet, party, association)

❖ A communal feast consisting of the offerings
May also include:
Procession with kami
omikoshi おみこし お御輿
お神輿
御神輿
o (honorable)
mi (august, beautiful)
koshi (palanquin, bier)

o (honorable – written with kanji or hiragana)
mi | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
koshi (palanquin, bier)

❖ Portable shrine (carried in festivals)
❖ Used to carry the kami in procession to its temporary location for a matsuri
❖ Also called dashi, mikoshi, yama-boko
dashi だし 山車
花車
mikoshi みこし 御輿
神輿
yama-boko やまぼこ 山鉾
da | sa (mountain)
shi | sha (car)

da | ? ka (flower) – may be derived from dai (counter for vehicles)
shi | sha (car)

mi (august, beautiful)
koshi (palanquin, bier)

mi | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
koshi (palanquin, bier)

yama (mountain)
boko | hoko (festival float)
kagura かぐら 神楽
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music, comfort, ease)

❖ Ancient shintô music and dancing
❖ Dances and music performanced for the kami
❖ (See satokagura)
のう
(ability, talent, skill, capacity)

❖ Dramatic performances
❖ Usually with a mythic theme
❖ (See noh)
kanwaza かんわざ 神業
kan | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
waza (business, vocation, arts, performance)

❖ Martial displays and artistic activities
❖ Also called kamiwaza, kamuwaza
kamiwaza かみわざ 神事
kamuwaza かむわざ 神業
kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
waza | koto (matter, thing, fact, business)

kamu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
waza (business, vocation, arts, performance)
funakurabe ふなくらべ 船競べ
funa (ship, boat)
kura.be (competion, bout, contest, race) – archaic

❖ Boat races between villages
keiba けいば 競馬
kei (competion, bout, contest, race)
ba (horse)

❖ Horse racing
kyûdô きゅうどう 弓道
kyû (bow, archery)
dô (way, course, teachings)

❖ Japanese archery
sumô すもう 相撲
su | sô (inter-, mutual, together, each other)
mo | boku (slap, strike, hit, beat)

❖ Japanese wrestling
❖ Highly ritualized
yabusame やぶさめ 流鏑馬
ya | na (current, flow)
busa | kabura (arrowhead)
me (horse)

❖ Mounted archery while riding past three equal size targets
matsuri gi まつりぎ 祭儀
matsuri (ritual, offer prayers, celebrate, deify, enshrine, worship)
gi (ceremony, rules)

❖ Rites / rituals
gagaku ががく 雅楽
ga (gracious, elegant, graceful, refined)
gaku (music, comfort, ease)

❖ Traditional music of the Japanese Imperial Court
❖ gagaku is considered a vehicle of communication between the kami and worshipers
Standard instruments include:
biwa びわ 琵琶
bi (glissando on strings, lute)
wa (lute)

❖ A short-necked lute
❖ The kami benzaiten is often shown carrying a biwa
hichiriki ひちりき 篳篥
hichi (fence)
riki (horn, flageolet)

❖ Small double-reed wind instrument
❖ Made of bamboo, with 7 holes on top and 2 below
shô しょ
(traditional Japanese wind instrument resembling panpipes)

❖ A reed mouth organ made of 17 bamboo pipes
taiko たいこ 太鼓
tai (plump, thick, big around)
ko (drum, beat)

❖ Drums
hairei はいれい 拝礼
hai (prayer, worship)
rei (ceremony)

❖ The formal manner of paying worship to kami
kami no mae ni
tachidomatte
かみのまえに
たちどまって
神の前に
立ち止まって
nirei にれい 二礼
nihakushu にはくしゅ 二柏手
shinsen しんせん 神饌
kigan きがん 祈願
norito のりと 祝詞
ichirei いちれい 一礼
❖ kami no mae ni tachidomatte – Stand in front of kami

❖ nirei – (two expressions of gratitude) Bow deeply twice

❖ nihakushu – (two oak hands) Clap hands twice

❖ shinsen – Make an offering

❖ kigan – or a prayer

❖ norito – or an invocation to the kami (See norito)

❖ ichirei – (one expression of gratitude) Then make another deep bow
hakushu はくしゅ 柏手
haku (oak)
shu (hand)

❖ (clapping one's hands in prayer)
❖ Part of proper etiquette for worshipping a kami
chôhakushu ちょはくしゅ 長柏手
chô (long)
haku (oak)
shu (hand)

❖ (long clapping)
❖ Four claps or more
hirade ひらで 平手
hira (flat, open)
de | te (hands)

❖ (palm, open hand clapping)
kashiwade かしわで 柏手
kashiwa (oak)
de | te (hands)

❖ (oak hands)
❖ One of the formal manners of performing worship in shintô
❖ One raises the hands to chest level and claps
❖ The ways of clapping and the number of times vary
nihakushu にはくしゅ 二柏手
ni (two)
haku (oak)
shu (hands)

❖ (two claps)
raishu らいしゅ 来手
rai (come, next, become) ?
shu (hands)

❖ Performed when presented with a cup of sake or before kyozen (food served on individual tables at a banquet)
shinobite しのびて 忍び手
shino.bi (endure, bear, put up with, conceal)
te (hands)

❖ Silent clapping
❖ Performed at shinsôsai
tanhakushu たんはくしゅ 短柏手
tan (short, brief)
haku (oak)
shu (hands)

❖ (short clapping)
❖ One to three times
himorogi ひもろぎ 神籬
kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, gratitude, awe, or terror)
ri (rough-woven fence, bamboo hedge)

❖ (kami fence) [archaism]
❖ Actual pronunciation appears to be based on the two kanji below

[archaism] (offerings to kami)

[archaism] (offerings to kami)

❖ A temporarily erected sacred space or "altar" used as a locus of worship
❖ Primitive shrine – originally a swath of sacred land surrounded by evergreens; later a decorated sakaki branch on an eight-legged table
❖ himorogi are represented by the demarcation of a physical area with branches of green bamboo or sakaki at the four corners, between which are strung sacred border shimenawa
❖ In the center of the area a large branch of sakaki festooned with hei is erected as a yorishiro
kami-mukae かみむかえ 神迎
kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, gratitude, awe, or terror)
mukae (welcome, meet, greet)

❖ Ritual invitation to kami to attend
kôshin-no-gi こしんのぎ 降神の儀
kô (descend, fall)
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
no (possessive particle)
gi (ceremony)

❖ The descent of kami on a sakaki branch at the opening of a ritual
kami-okuri かみおくり 神送
kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, gratitude, awe, or terror)
oku.ri (escort, send)

❖ Ritual sending off of kami after harai
shôshin-no-gi しょしんのぎ 昇神の儀
shô (ascend, rise up)
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
no (possessive particle)
gi (ceremony)

❖ The ascent of kami at the end of a ritual
noh のう
(ability, talent, skill)

❖ Religious drama evolved from shintô rituals that expresed themes in Japanese mythology
❖ Also called nôgaku
nôgaku のうがく 能楽
nô (ability, talent, skill)
gaku (music)
shinji-nô しんじのう 神事能
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ji (matter, thing, business)
nô (ability, talent, skill)

❖ nô plays performed as part of shintô ceremonies
saijitsu さいじつ 祭日
sai (ritual, offer prayers, celebrate, deify, enshrine, worship)
jitsu (day, sun)

❖ (Literally: festival day)
❖ The day on which a matsuri is held
satokagura さとかぐら 里神楽
sato (village)
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)

❖ All kagura not held at the imperial palace
❖ An umbrella term containing folk dances derived from mikagura, and incorporated with other folk traditions
❖ kagura is considered a vehicle of communication between kami and worshipers
kagura uta かぐらうた 神楽歌
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)
uta (song, sing)

❖ Songs composed to go with kagura
miko kagura みこかぐら 巫女神楽
巫子神楽
神子神楽
miko (female shrine attendants)
onna (woman, female)
miko (shrine maiden, virgin consecrated to a kami, medium, sorceress)
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)

miko (female shrine attendants)
ko (child) – archaic
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)

kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, gratitude, awe, or terror)
ko (child) – archaic
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)

❖ Dances performed by miko derived from ritual dances in which the miko channeled kami, speaking, singing, and dancing as kami
miko-mai みこまい 巫女舞
miko (female shrine attendants)
mai (Japanese traditional dance, circle, wheel)

❖ Ritual dances performed at shintô shrines by one or more miko, holding bells, o-gi (folding fans), fronds of bamboo, or sakaki as torimono
urayasu-no-mai うらやすのまい 浦安の舞
ura (bay, creek, inlet, gulf, beach, seacoast)
yasu (quiet, contented, peaceful)
no (possesive | of)
mai (Japanese traditional dance, circle, wheel)

❖ Based on a poem by emperor showa:
To all kami, Of heaven and earth I pray, For a tranquil world,
Without disturbances, — like the sea in the morning.
shishi kagura ししかぐら 獅子神楽
師子神楽
shi (lion) | shi (child)
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)

shi (expert, teacher, master) | shi (child)
kagu | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ra (music)

❖ A form of lion dance, in which dancers take on the role of the shishi lion and parade around the town
shishi mai ししまい 獅子舞
師子舞
鹿舞
shi (lion)
shi (child)
mai (Japanese traditional dance, circle, wheel)

shi (expert, teacher, master)
shi (child)
mai (Japanese traditional dance, circle, wheel)

shishi (deer)
mai (Japanese traditional dance, circle, wheel)

❖ Ritual dance using the mask of a lion or a deer
shishi しし
鹿
shishi (beast – esp. one used for its meat, such as a boar)

shishi (animal, beast – esp. one used for its meat, such as a boar or a deer)

shishi (beast – esp. one used for its meat, such as a deer)

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