shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
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ToCminzoku shintôsekai-kanseiketsukan to shôjô

seiketsukan to seijô (Sense of Cleanliness & Purity) – 08 / 23 / 2014
seiketsukan せいけつかん 清潔感
sei (pure, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
ketsu (undefiled, pure, clean, righteous)
kan (emotion, feeling, sensation)

❖ (sense of cleanliness or freshness)
seijô せいじょう 清浄
shôjô しょうじょう
sei (pure, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)

shô (pure, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)

❖ (pure, clean, purity)
❖ Also pronounced shôjô
seijôkeppaku せいじょう 清浄潔白
sei (pure, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
kep | ketsu (undefiled, pure, clean, righteous)
paku (white)

❖ (upright and clean-handed, pure in heart and with a clean conscience)
seijômuku せいじょう 清浄無垢
sei (pure, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
mu (nothingness, none, ain't, nothing, nil, not)
ku (dirt, grime)

❖ (purity, spotlessness)
One must be clean, spiritually and physically, in the presence of kami. kami will not come where there is kegare or tsumi. At least, not the beneficial sort of kami we want to attract. In order to be clean, purification rituals are performed. Here is a link to an explanation of some of these rituals: Shinto Purification Rituals (QuickTime Player required – free).
fujô ふじょう 不浄
fu (negative, bad, ugly)
jô (purify, cleanse, exorcise, unspoiled)

❖ Uncleanliness, dirtiness, impurity, filthiness, defilement, menses
fujôba ふじょうば 不浄場
fu (negative, bad, ugly)
jô (purify, cleanse, exorcise, unspoiled)
ba (location, place)

❖ (unclean place)
Pollution – Pollution obscures our ability to sense kami – to experience the Sublime
Pollution As Contagious – Pollution occurs when people come into contact with pollution
Pollution As Error – Pollution occurs when people make a mistake
Pollution Can Be Purified – Pollution can be removed by performing various purification rites
(See harai)
kegare けがれ
(dirty)

❖ Spiritual pollution, ritual impurity or injury resulting from naturally occuring phenomena
ketsu-e けつえ 血穢
ketsu (blood)
e (dirty, filthy, foul, unclean)

❖ (blood impurity)
❖ Also called akafujô
akafujô あかふじょう 赤不浄
aka (red)
fu (negative, bad)
jô (pure, clean, unspoiled)
fujô (uncleanliness, dirtiness, impurity, filthiness, defilement, menses)

❖ (red impurity)
ketsu-e Sources – ketsu-e can be acquired through contact with blood during:
Abortion
Birth
Injury
Killing
Marriage consumation
Menstruation
Miscarriage
shi-e しえ 死穢
shi (death, die)
e (dirty, filthy, foul, unclean)

❖ (death impurity)
❖ Also called kurofujô or kokufujô
kurofujô くろふじょう 黒不浄
kokufujô こくふじょう
kuro (black)
fu (negative, bad)
jô (pure, clean, unspoiled)
fujô (uncleanliness, dirtiness, impurity, filthiness, defilement, menses)

koku (black)
fu (negative, bad)
jô (pure, clean, unspoiled)
fujô (uncleanliness, dirtiness, impurity, filthiness, defilement, menses)

❖ (black impurity)
shi-e Sources – shi-e can be acquired through contact with the dead during:
Abortion / miscarriage
Digging or moving graves
Killing / murder
kamisô かみそう 神葬
kami (sacred)
sô (bury, internment)

❖ shintô funeral
❖ Also called shinsô
shinsô しんそう 神葬
shin (kami)
sô (bury, internment)
Those immediately related to the dead – Mother, father, child – Are impure for 49 days after death
Those attending the shinsô – Are impure for 3 days after the funeral
kibuku きぶく 忌服
ki (mourning)
buku | fuku (clothing)

❖ (mourning)
❖ From mourning clothes
❖ Also called buku, buk'ki
buku ぶく
buk'ki ぶくき 服忌
buku | fuku (clothing)

buk | fuku (clothing)
ki (mourning)
kichû きちゅう 忌中
ki (mourning)
chû (in, inside, middle)

❖ Posted warning that place is under taboo
hi-make ひまけ 火負
hi (fire)
ma.ke (defeat, negative)

❖ (defeated by fire)
❖ Illness resulting from contact with the dead
❖ Also called imi-make
imi-make いみまけ 忌負
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)
ma.ke (defeat, negative)
san-e さんえ 産穢
san (childbirth, give birth, bear)
e (dirty, filthy, foul, unclean)

❖ (child birth impurity)
❖ Also called shirofujô
shirofujô しろふじょう 白不浄
shiro (white)
fu (negative, bad)
jô (pure, clean, unspoiled)
fujô (uncleanliness, dirtiness, impurity, filthiness, defilement, menses)

❖ (white impurity)
san-e Sources
Pregnancy
Birth – Mother is impure for 32 days after the birth day
Blood – Involves ketsu-e
monoimi ものいみ 物忌み
mono (thing, object, matter)
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)

❖ (fasting; abstinence; confinement to one's house on an unlucky day)
❖ Also, rituals conducted to protect young boys and girls from sources of pollution
shoku-e しょくえ 触穢
shoku (contact, touch, feel)
e (dirty, filthy, foul, unclean)

❖ Touching kegare
❖ Contact with those who touched kegare
san-ten さんてん 三轉
san (three)
ten (turn, move)

❖ Impurity is contagious up to three times removed
wazawai わざわい 災い
wazawa.i (disaster, calamity, woe, curse, evil)

❖ Disaster to be removed by harai
tsumi つみ
(guilt, sin, crime, fault, blame, offense)

❖ Imperfection, impurity, pollution, or uncleanness resulting from human actions
Anti-social conduct
Murder – Involves ketsu-e and shi-e
Anti-social sexual conduct
Beastiality – Having sex with animals
(horses, cows, chickens and dogs are specifically mentioned)
Incest
Men – Having sex with:
One's mother
One's sister
The mother of a woman with whom one has had sex
The daughter of a woman with whom one has had sex
Women – Having sex with:
One's father
One's brother
The father of a man with whom one has had sex
The son of a man with whom one has had sex
Rape
Eating certain foods
Animal meat – Involves ketsu-e and shi-e
Garlic
Green Onions
Leeks
shinbatsu しんばつ 神罰
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
batsu (penalty, punishment)

❖ Divine retribution inflicted on someone who speaks or acts in a disrespectful, unbelieving, or impure way towards kami
❖ Also called batsu, bachi
batsu ばつ
bachi ばち
(penalty, punishment)

(divine punishment; curse; retribution)
tatari たたり 祟り
tata.ri (curse, haunt)

❖ Misfortune thru which a kami warns or punishes
aku あく
(bad, vice, rascal, false, evil, wrong, wickedness)

❖ Evil, unhappiness, disaster, misfortune, or inferiority of nature or value
magakoto まがこと 禍事
禍言
maga (calamity, misfortune, evil, curse)
koto (matter, thing)

maga (calamity, misfortune, evil, curse)
koto (say)

❖ Abnormality
❖ (See ma.gari)
kikei きけい 奇形
畸形
畸型
ki (strange, strangeness, curiosity)
kei (shape, form, style)
ki (difference, strange, cripple)
kei (shape, form, style)
ki (difference, strange, cripple)
kei (mould, type, model)

❖ (birth defect, deformity, malformation, misshapenness)
yamai やまい
(illness, disease)

❖ Illness, sickness
❖ Especially contagious diseases
kiyome きよめ 浄め
清め
kiyo.me (pure, clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)

kiyo.me [archaism] (pure, clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)

❖ (purity)
kotodama – Purification through words (See kotodama)
norito – Purfication through prayers addressed to kami (See norito)
harai はらい
(purification, exorcism)

❖ Purification rites
❖ Also called o-harai, harae
o-harai おはらい お祓い
harae はらえ
o (honorable)
hara.i (purification, exorcism)

(purification, exorcism)
oo-harae おおはらえ 大祓
oo (great, large, big)
hara.e (purification, exorcism)

❖ Or ooharae
❖ Great purification performed on June 30th (See nagoshi-no-ooharae) and December 31th (See toshikoshi ooharae)
ooharae-no-kotoba おおはらえのことば 大祓の詞
oo (great, large, big)
hara.e (purification, exorcism)
no (possessive particle)
kotoba | shi (part of speech, words, poetry)

❖ Words of the great purification
❖ Norito read at a grand purification event
hi
(fire, flame , blaze)

harai with fire
chinki-shiki ちんきしき 鎮火式
chin (tranquilize)
ki | hi (fire)
shiki (ceremony, rite)

❖ A fire-calming ritual used for harai
❖ Fire-walking
Impure fire – Because of contact with kegare or tsumi
yudate ゆだて 湯立て
yu (hot water, hot spring)
da.te (stand up)

❖ Ceremony of harai using boiling water sprinkled on the shinshoku and worshippers with bamboo leaves
❖ A form of divination
Pure fire – Fire that has not come into contact with kegare or tsumi
hikaeri ひかえり 火帰り
hi (fire, flame, blaze)
kae.ri (return coming back)

❖ Renewing the fire
❖ Relighting a fire to purify it
❖ Frequently using a fire-drill
miki みき 御酒
神酒
mi (honorable)
ki (sake, alcohol)

mi | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ki (sake, alcohol)

❖ Sake or sacred wine offered to kami
❖ Also called o-miki, sake
o-miki おみき 御神酒
お神酒
sake さけ
o (honorable) – written with kanji or hiragana
mi | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
ki (sake, alcohol)

(alcohol, rice wine)
mizu みず
(water)

❖ Also called o-mizu
o-mizu おみず 御水
お水
o (honorable) – written with kanji or hiragana
mizu (water)
misogi みそぎ
身滌
(purification ceremony)

mi (somebody, person)
sogi | jô (rinse, wash)

❖ (shintô purification ceremony)
❖ Self-purification thru water
kiyome-no-ike きよめのいけ 浄めの池
清めの池
kiyo.me (pure, clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
no (possessive particle)
ike (pond, pool)

❖ A pond or pool used for performing misogi
temizuyaFont for ritual purification of oneself.
mitarashi みたらし 御手洗
mi- (honorable)
te- (hand)
ra.shi (wash)

❖ Font of purifying water placed at the entrance of a shrine
mitarashikawa みたらしかわ 御手洗川
mi- (honorable)
te- (hand)
ra.shi (wash)
kawa (stream, river)

❖ River in which worshippers wash their hands and rinse their mouth prior to entering a shrine
Purification of place – First, sweep and clean the four corners of the place, and offer o-miki, o-kome, o-shio and o-suna at the kamidana and pray.
Then start purification by spreading them in the order of:
hokutô, nantô, nansei, hokusei, and the entryway (for the Sacred Center)
suna すな
(sand)

❖ Sacred sand
❖ Usually sand from a ocean or sea beach
❖ Also called o-suna
o-suna おすな 御砂
お砂
o (honorable) – written with kanji or hiragana
suna (sand)
mori-suna もりすな 盛砂
mori (bloom, prosper)
suna (sand)

❖ Sand is sometimes placed outside homes and businesses in little piles
shio しお
(salt)

❖ Also called o-shio
o-shio おしお 御塩
お塩
o (honorable – written with kanji or hiragana)
shio (salt)
maki-shio まきしお 撒き塩
ma.ki (scatter)
shio (salt)

❖ Scattering salt around the boundaries of a place to stop impurities from entering the area
mori-shio もりしお 盛塩
mori (bloom, prosper)
shio (salt)

❖ Salt is sometimes placed outside homes and businesses in little piles
imi いみ
(taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)

(taboo, purification, avoid)

❖ Abstinence, or the avoidance of that which is magakoto, tsumi and kegare, and the removal of those states
saikai さいかい 斎戒
sai (purification, avoid)
kai (admonition; commandment) – Buddhist term

❖ Observance of abstinence for a certain period of time before and after a religious ceremony by a participant
❖ The person remains secluded in a building called an imiya, abstains from sex, uses only bekka, bathes frequently, abstains from partaking of certain foods, avoids contact with death and sickness, and concentrates on religious concerns
araimi あらいみ 荒忌
ara (rough, rude)
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)

❖ (rough abstinence)
❖ A shortened or partial abstinence
bekka べっか 別火
bek | betsu (separate, branch off, diverge, fork, another, extra, specially)
ka (fire)

❖ (sacred fire)
❖ Usually started with a fire drill
imiya いみや 忌屋
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)
ya (roof, house, shop)

❖ (building for abstinence)
❖ A temporary hut for abstinence
maimi まいみ 真忌
ma (true, reality)
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)

❖ (true abstinence)
❖ Strict adherence to the rules governing the abstinence
hiaki ひあき 火開
hi (fire, flame , blaze)
a.ki (open, unfold, unseal)

❖ Expiration of the fire — end of a period of imi
❖ Also called imiaki
imiaki いみあき 忌開
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)
a.ki (open, unfold, unseal)
imikotoba いみことば 忌詞
忌言葉
i.mi (taboo, mourning, abhor, detestable)
koto (say)
ba | ha (fragment, piece)
kotoba | shi (part of speech, words, poetry)

❖ Avoiding tabu words
❖ (See kotodama)
kinki きんき 禁忌
kin (prohibition, ban, forbid)
ki (mourning, abhor, detestable)

❖ (taboo – day, time, direction, words, etc. that must be avoided)
❖ To forbid any contact with or proximity to things that should be abstained from
ibuki いぶき 息吹
気吹
i | iki (breath, respiration)
buki | fuki (blow, breathe, puff)

i | iki (spirit, mind, air, mood)
buki | fuki (blow, breathe, puff)

❖ Breathing exercises as an ascetic practice
❖ Frequently performed before misogi
shinjin-ki'itsu しんじんきいつ 神人帰一
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
jin (person)
ki (homecoming, arrive at, lead to, result in)
itsu (one)

❖ (kami and man become as one)
❖ Return of the purifed human nature to kami status from which it has fallen because of kegare and tsumi
shubatsu しゅばつ 修祓
shu (discipline, conduct oneself well, study, master)
batsu | futsu (exorcise)

❖ Ritual of self-purification by shinshoku before conducting harai
❖ Composed of 3 purification elements: recitiation of the incantation, waving the ô-nusa and sprinkling the salt-water to remove impurities
yakubarai やくばらい 厄払
yaku (unlucky, misfortune, bad luck, disaster)
-bara.i (clear out, banish)

❖ Exorcism, ceremonial cleansing from evil influence
❖ Also harai done with a shishi-mai

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