shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
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jikkai (Ten Worlds) – 06 / 12 / 2014
jikkai じっかい 十界
jik | jitsu (ten)
kai (world)

❖ Ten worlds or realms of existence
❖ The jikkai are divided into two groups.
❖ The first group comprises the rokudô
❖ The second group comprises the shi-shô
rokudô ろくどう 六道
roku (six)
dô (path, road-way, street, journey, course, moral, teachings)

❖ The six paths of suffering (Skt: Samsara)
❖ Also called rokudô-rinne
rokudô-rinne ろくどうりんね 六道輪回
roku (six)
dô (path, road-way, street, journey, course, moral, teachings
rin (wheel, ring, circle, link, loop)
ne | e (-times, round, game, revolve, counter for occurrences)

roku (six)
dô (path, road-way, street, journey, course, moral, teachings
rin (wheel, ring, circle, link, loop)
ne (round, game, revolve, go around, circumference)
jigoku じごく 地獄
ji (ground, earth)
goku (prison, jail)

❖ The realm of hells – the lowest level
❖ (See meido)
gaki がき 餓鬼
ga (starve, hungry, thirst)
ki (oni)

❖ The realm of hungry ghosts
❖ (See yûrei)
chikushô ちくしょう 畜生
chiku (livestock, domestic fowl and animals)
shô (life, genuine, birth)

❖ The realm of animals
ashura あしゅら 阿修羅
a (flatter, fawn upon, corner, nook, recess / ateji)
shu (discipline, conduct oneself well, study, master / ateji)
ra (gauze, thin silk / ateji)
ashura (Skt: Asura – fighting demon)

❖ The realm of bellicose demons
ningen にんげん 人間
nin (person)
gen | ken (interval, space)
ningen (the world – archaism)

❖ The realm of humans
ten てん
(heavens, sky)

❖ The realm of heavenly beings
shi-shô ししょう 四聖
shi-sei しせい
shi (four)
shô | sei (sacred, holy, pure, saint, sage, master, priest)

❖ The four noble worlds
❖ The four realms of enlightened existence
❖ Also pronounced shi-sei
shômon しょうもん 声聞
shô (voice)
mon (hear, ask, listen)
shômon (Skt: Sravaka Arhats)

❖ (listeners of Buddhist teachings)
❖ Disciple of Buddha
❖ (See jûrokurakan)
❖ The realm of voice-hearers
engaku えんがく 縁覚
en (affinity, relation, connection, edge, border, verge, brink)
gaku | haku (memorize, learn, remember, awake, sober up)
engaku (Skt: Pratyeka Buddhas)

❖ (one who achieves enlightenment without a teacher)
❖ The realm of cause-awakened ones
bosatsu ぼさつ 菩薩
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattvas – enlightened being)

❖ (the compassionate ones)
❖ Penultimate state before Buddhahood
❖ The realm of bosatsu
hotoke ほとけ
(Buddha, merciful person)

❖ Buddhas (highest level)
❖ Buddhahood – awakened, enlightened
❖ Ultimate state for Buddhist practitioners
❖ The realm of hotoke
❖ Also called butsu, nyorai
butsu ぶつ
nyorai にょらい 如来
(Skt: Buddha)

nyo (likeness, like, such as, as if, better, best, equal)
rai (come, due, next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

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