shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
shiyakujin no hokoraTable of ContentsIndexBibliographyBackForward
ToCminzoku shintôminkandenshôThe Othersyôkai

yôkai – 09 / 20 / 2020
yôkai ようかい 妖怪
yô (attractive, bewitching, calamity)
kai (suspicious, mystery, apparition)

❖ (ghost; apparition; phantom; spectre; specter; demon; monster; goblin)
❖ Something strange, suspicious, or mysterious such as a spirit, ghost, demon, or other 'supernatural' creature
❖ Also called ayashii, ayakashi
ayashii あやしい
ayakashi あやかし
aya.shii (attractive, bewitching, calamity)

aya.shii (suspicious, mystery, apparition)

ayakashi (ghost that appears at sea during a shipwreck, something strange or suspicious, noh mask for roles involving dead or ghost characters)
tsukumogami – Old or discarded artifact spirits
henge へんげ 変化
hen (change, strange, unusual)
ge | ke (change, delude, enchant, influence, take the form of)
❖ goblin, ghost, apparition, bugbear
❖ Animal shape-shifters with the ability to take on human form
kitsune, tanuki, tengu, ryû
hitotsume-kozô ひとつめこぞう 一つ目小僧
hito.tsu (one)
me (eye)
ko- (small, little)
zô | sô (monk, priest)

❖ (one-eyed boys)
❖ Roughly the size of ten-year-old children, their most distinctive feature is a single, giant eye peering from the center of the face, along with a long tongue
❖ They are relatively harmless creatures, content to run about frightening human beings or telling loud people to be quiet (they enjoy silence)
inugami いぬがみ 犬神
inu (dog)
gami | kami (soul, mind, kami)

❖ (Literally: dog kami)
❖ Similar to a familiar spirit, resembling, and usually originating from, a dog
❖ Most commonly carrying out vengeance or acting as guardians on behalf of the inugami-mochi, (inugami owner)
iso-onna いそおんな 磯女
iso (rocky beach, seashore)
onna (woman)

iso (beach, rock, shore)
onna (woman)

❖ (woman of the rocky shores)
❖ Has a slit mouth
❖ Attacks and eats people
kaijû かいじゅう 怪獣
kai (suspicious, mystery, apparition)
jû (animal, beast)

❖ (Literally: strange beast)
❖ A monster
kappa かっぱ 河童
kap (river)
pa (juvenile, child)

❖ (water-dwelling creature, excellent swimmer, cucumber)
❖ A water creature that lures people into rivers and ponds, and then drowns them
❖ Has a fondness for cucumbers
kodama こだま 木魂
ko- (tree, wood)
dama | tama (spirit, soul)

❖ (tree spirit)
❖ A spirit believed to live in certain trees
❖ Cutting down a tree which houses it is thought to bring misfortune, and such trees are often marked with shimenawa
nurarihyon ぬらりひょん 滑瓢
nurarikurari (an onomatopoeia for lazy, evasive, non-commital, slippery as an eel)
hyon (onomatopoeia for floating upwards) written with kanji for gourd (due to shape of his head)

❖ nurarihyon (slippery gourd)
❖ A portmanteau word
❖ A yôkai that cannot be caught
❖ Originally, a head shaped orb floating in the seto sea, bobbing just out of reach
❖ Said to originate from wakayama Prefecture
❖ Also believed to be descended from the umibôzu of okayama Prefecture
❖ Later an old man with a head shaped like a gourd
❖ Also pronounced nûrihyon
nûrihyon ぬうりひょん 滑瓢
obake おばけ 御化け
o (honorable) (change, take the form of, influence, enchant)

❖ (Literally: a thing that changes)
yôkai in Japanese folklore that transform or shapeshift
❖ Also called bakemono, obakemono
bakemono ばけもの 化け物
obakemono おばけもの 御化け物
お化け物 (change, take the form of, influence, enchant)
mono (thing, object)

o (honorable) – written with kanji or hiragana (change, take the form of, influence, enchant)
mono (thing, object)
bakeneko ばけねこ 化け猫 (change, take the form of, influence, enchant)
neko (cat)

❖ (ghost-cat able to appear in disguise)
❖ A cat with supernatural abilities
❖ A cat may become a bakeneko if it: lives over 13 years, is kept for a certain number of years, reaches one kan (3.75 kilograms) in weight, or is allowed to keep a long tail
❖ Also called maneki-neko
maneki-neko まねきねこ 招き猫 (beckon, invite, summon)
neko (cat)

❖ (Literally: beckoning cat)
nekomata ねこまた 猫股
neko (cat)
mata (crotch, forked)

❖ Two-tailed monster cat
hebi へび
❖ (serpent, snake)
❖ Protect against illness, disaster, bad fortune and like the dragon can bring rain
❖ Snakes can transform into human forms, usually that of a vengeful, jealous or wronged woman
shiro-hebi しろへび 白蛇
shiro (white)
hebi (serpent, snake)

❖ A messenger of kami
❖ White snakes are associated with ujagin, benzaiten, suijin, and inari
jorô-gumo じょろうぐも 女郎蜘蛛
jo (female, woman)
rô (son)
jorô (prostitute, entertainment woman)
gumo | kumo (spider)

❖ (literally: prostitute spider)
❖ The last two kanji both mean spider
❖ A spider that can change its appearance into that of a seductive woman
kitsune きつね
❖ (fox)
❖ Foxes are usually considered bad omens, but white, black or nine-tailed foxes can be good omens from the Kami
akagitsune あかぎつね 赤狐
aka (red)
gitsune | kitsune (fox)

❖ Red fox
❖ Vulpes vulpes
gingitsune ぎんぎつね 銀狐
gin (silver)
gitsune | kitsune (fox)

❖ Silver fox
❖ Vulpes vulpes
hokkyoku gitsune ほっきょくぎつね 北極狐
hok (north)
kyoku (pole, extreme, extremity)
hokkyoku (north pole, arctic)
gitsune | kitsune (fox)

❖ Polar fox, arctic fox
❖ Alopex lagopus
jûjigitsune じゅうじぎつね 十字狐
jû (ten)
ji (character, letter, word)
gitsune | kitsune (fox)

❖ Or jûji gitsune
❖ (Literally – ten character fox)
❖ Refers to a cross-shaped pattern on its shoulders
kitakitsune きたきつね 北狐
kita (north)
kitsune (fox)

❖ Northern fox
❖ Vulpes vulpes schrencki
kitsune-mochi きつねもち 狐持ち
kitsune (fox)
mo.chi (hold, keep possession, in charge)

❖ Possession of fox power by a human being
kitsune-tsukai きつねつかい 狐使い
kitsune (fox)
tsuka.i (use, usage)

❖ Use of fox power by a human being
kitsune-tsuki きつねつき 狐憑き
kitsune (fox) (haunt, possess)

❖ Possession by a fox
kurogitsune くろぎつね 黒狐
kuro (black)
gitsune | kitsune (fox)

❖ Black fox
❖ Vulpes vulpes
kyûbi-no-kitsune きゅうびのきつね 九尾の狐
kyû (nine)
bi (tail, end)
no (possesive particle)
kitsune (fox)

❖ Nine-tailed fox
❖ Fox spirit
❖ Kitsune are said to be more powerful the more tails they have
shirogitsune しろぎつね 白狐
shiro (white)
gitsune | kitsune (fox)

❖ White fox
❖ Vulpes vulpes
❖ White foxes are associated with inari as his messengers
mujina むじな
❖ (badger)
❖ Shape-shifters
❖ They are frequently confused with tanuki
❖ They are mostly mischievous and seem to enjoy deceiving people
tanuki たぬき
❖ (raccoon-dog)
❖ Related to Chinese fox lore
❖ Shape-shifters with supernatural powers, specializing in illusory magic
❖ They have mischievous tendencies
❖ Frequently depicted as having a big belly & giant scrotum, and holding a sake bottle
❖ They use belly drumming to lure the unwary astray
tengu てんぐ 天狗
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)
tengu (long-nosed henge)

❖ (Literally: heavenly dogs)
❖ Sometimes worshipped as kami
❖ Take the forms of birds of prey, and they are traditionally depicted with both human and avian characteristics
❖ Appears in art in a large number of shapes, but it usually falls somewhere between a large, monstrous bird and a wholly anthropomorphized being
❖ Often with a red face or an unusually large or long nose
daitengu だいてんぐ 大天狗
dai (great, big, large)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

❖ (great tengu)
❖ Also called oo-tengu, hanataka-tengu
oo-tengu おおてんぐ 大天狗
hanataka-tengu はなたかてんぐ 鼻高天狗
ô (great, big, large)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

hana (nose, snout)
taka (tall, high, quantity, amount)
hanataka (high nose, tall nose, pride)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)
kotengu こてんぐ 小天狗
ko- (small, little)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

❖ (small tengu)
❖ Also called karasu-tengu, koppa-tengu, konoha-tengu
karasu-tengu てんぐ 烏天狗
koppa-tengu こっぱてんぐ 木葉天狗
konoha-tengu このはてんぐ 木の葉天狗
karasu (crow, raven)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

ko- (tree, wood)
ha (leaf, lobe, needle, blade)
koppa (foliage)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

konoha (foliage)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)
kawatengu かわてんぐ 川天狗
kawa (river, stream)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

❖ (river tengu)
❖ A water-dwelling tengu
❖ Creates strange fireballs and is a nuisance to fishermen
shibatengu しばてんぐ 芝天狗
shiba (lawn, turf)
ten (heavens, sky, imperial)
gu | ku (dog, puppy)

❖ (lawn tengu)
❖ A small child-like being who loves sumo-wrestling and sometimes dwells in the water
tsuchigumo つちぐも 土蜘蛛
tsuchi (earth, ground, soil)
gumo | kumo (spider)

❖ (ground spider)
❖ The last two kanji both mean spider
❖ A spider that can change its appearance into that of a small boy or a beautiful woman
ôkami おおかみ
❖ (wolf)
❖ Generally honest and if dealt with properly, benevolent
❖ Also called okuri-inu, okuri-ôkami, yama-inu
okuri-inu おくりいぬ 送り犬
okuri-ôkami おくりおおかみ 送り狼
yama-inu やまいぬ 山犬
oku.ri (see off, send off, escort)
inu (dog)
okuri-inu (escorting dog)

oku.ri (see off, send off, escort)
ôkami (wolf)
okuri-ôkami (escorting wolf)

yama (mountain)
inu (dog)
yama-inu (mountain dog)
oni おに
❖ (orge, demon, ghost / also fierce, relentless, merciless) – Buddhist
❖ A mountain-dwelling ogre, usually depicted with red, blue, brown or black skin, two horns on its head, a wide mouth filled with fangs, and wearing nothing but a tigerskin loincloth
❖ Often carries an iron club or a giant sword
❖ (See setsubun)
shikigami しきがみ 識神
shiki (know, write, discriminating)
gami (mind, soul, kami)

shiki | shoku (employment, work)
gami (mind, soul, kami)

shiki (style, ceremony, rite, function, method, system, form, expression)
gami (mind, soul, kami)

❖ Form of magic or divination (e.g. animating objects to act as the sorcerer's agent)
❖ A kind of spirit summoned to serve an onmyô-ji – a practitioner of onmyô-dô
❖ Although invisible, shikigami supposedly could, at the Onmyô-ji's command, take a variety of human or animal forms, possess or bewitch people, and even cause bodily harm or death
❖ Also called shiki-no-kami
shiki-no-kami しきのがみ 識の神
shiki (know, write, discriminating)
no (possesive particle)
kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
shôjô しょうじょう 猩々
shô(orangutan) / (iteration mark)
shôjô (orangutan)

❖ A small sea spirit
❖ Monkey like with reddish skin and orange fur
❖ Likes dancing, merrymaking, and especially drinking sake
umibôzu うみぼうず 海坊主
umi (sea, ocean)
bôzu (Buddhist priest, bonsô)

❖ (sea priest)
❖ A sea spirit
❖ Appears to sailors on calm seas which quickly turn violent
❖ Appears and disappears in the oceans, often at night
❖ Destroys ships or drowns sailors
❖ Also called umihôshi, uminyûdô
umihôshi うみほうし 海法師
uminyûdô うみにゅうどう 海入道
umi (sea, ocean)
hôshi (Buddhist priest, bonsô)
umihôshi (sea priest)

umi (sea, ocean)
nyûdô (entering the priesthood, priest, monk)
uminyûdô (sea monk)
yûrei ゆうれい 幽霊
yû (faint, dark, dim)
rei (soul, spirit)

❖ (ghost)
❖ Spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife
❖ Also called bôrei, shiryô
bôrei ぼうれい 亡霊
shiryô しりょう 死霊
bô (deceased, the late, dying, perish)
rei (soul, spirit)
bôrei (ruined or departed spirit)

shi (death, die)
ryô (soul, spirit)
shiryô (dead spirit)
Exorcism – The easiest way to exorcise a yûrei is to help it fulfill its purpose
❖ Accomplished by family members enacting revenge upon the yûrei's slayer
❖ Or when the ghost consummates its passion/love with its intended lover
❖ Or when its remains are discovered and given a proper burial with all rites performed
❖ Malicious yûrei are repelled by an ofuda
❖ ofuda must generally be placed on the yûrei's forehead to banish it
❖ ofuda can be attached to a house's entry ways to prevent the yûrei from entering
airyô あいりょう 愛霊
ai (love, affection)
ryô (spirit, soul)

❖ Ghost bound to this world by love
akuryô あくりょう 悪霊
aku (evil, wickedness)
ryô (spirit, soul)

❖ (bad spirit)
❖ Evil ghost or devil-like spirit
amekai yûrei あめかいゆうれい 飴買幽霊
ame (hard candy, toffee)
kai (buying, shopping)
amekai (candy buying)
yû (secluded, dark, obscured)
rei (soul, spirit)
yûrei (ghost)

❖ (candy buying ghost)
❖ Ghost of a mother who buys candy for her still living child
ashinonai yûrei あしのないゆうれい 足のない幽霊
ashi (foot, leg)
no (possesive particle)
nai (not, verb-negating suffix)
ashinonai (footless)
yû (secluded, dark, obscured)
rei (spirit, soul)
yûrei (ghost)

❖ (footless ghost)
❖ The lower extremities of Japanese ghosts frequently fade into nothing
ashura あしゅら 阿修羅
a (flatter, fawn upon, corner, nook, recess / ateji)
shu (discipline, conduct oneself well, study, master / ateji)
ra (gauze, thin silk / ateji)

❖ (warrior ghost)
❖ Ghost of a warrior who died in battle
❖ See ashura (Skt: Asura - fighting demon)
❖ Also called shura mono
shura mono しゅらもの 修羅物
shura (abbreviated form of ashura)
mono (thing, object)

❖ noh play about a warrior ghost
eirei えいれい 英霊
ei (great, noble, heroic)
rei (soul, spirit)

❖ Spirit of the war dead
❖ Spirit of a hero
funayûrei ふなゆうれい 船幽霊
funa (boat, ship)
yû (secluded, obscured)
rei (spirits, soul)
yûrei (ghost)

❖ Ghost of a person who died at sea
❖ Usually tries to sink the ship of those who see them
fuyûrei ふゆうれい 浮遊霊
fu (float)
yû (play, move freely)
fuyû (floating, wandering, suspension)
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (wandering spirit)
❖ Ghost not bound to a place or person
gaki がき 餓鬼
ga (starve, hungry, thirst)
ki (ghost, devil)

❖ (hungry ghost) – Buddhist
❖ Jealous or greedy people in a previous life
❖ As a result of their (karma), they are afflicted with an insatiable hunger for a particular substance or object
❖ (See rokudô / gaki)
goryô ごりょう 御霊
go (honorable)
ryô (spirits, soul)

❖ Powerful spirits of the dead that are feared if they have been wronged
❖ Vengeful ghost
goryô-e ごりょうえ 御霊会
go (honorable)
ryô (spirits, soul)
e (meeting)

❖ Ritual of chinkon to calm an angry soul
goryôshin ごりょうしん 御霊神
go (honorable)
ryô (spirits, soul)
shin (kami)

❖ The vengeful spirits of those who have died accidental deaths, or while bearing discontents, regrets or unfulfilled longings
onryô おんりょう 怨霊
on (grudge, show resentment, be jealous)
ryô (spirits, soul)

❖ Vengeful ghost who come back for a wrong done to them during their lifetime
hitodama ひとだま 人魂
hito (person)
dama | tama (soul, spirit)

❖ (disembodied soul, supernatural fiery ball)
❖ Mysterious lights accompanying other kairikiranshin
hone onna ほねおんな 骨女
hone (bone)
onna (woman)

❖ (bone woman)
❖ An airyô that has sex with a man and is revealed as a corpse afterwards
ikiryô いきりょう 生霊
iki (life, genuine, birth)
ryô (spirits, soul)

❖ (living spirit)
❖ Living creatures possessed by extraordinary jealousy or rage release their spirit as a living ghost that enacts its will
❖ Frequently, they are not aware that they are doing this
jibakurei じばくれい 地縛霊
ji | chi (place, earth, ground, land, soil)
baku (bind, tie, restrain)
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (earth-bound spirit)
❖ A ghost bound to a certain place, usually the place of its death
jikininki じきにんき 食人鬼
jiki (eat, food)
nin (person)
ki (ghost, devil)

❖ (human eating ghost) – Buddhist
❖ Greedy, selfish or impious individuals who are cursed after death to seek out and eat human corpses
❖ Also called rasetsuten
rasetsuten らせつてん 羅刹天
ra (gauze)
setsu (temple)
ten (heavens, sky)

❖ rasetsu-ten (Skt. Raksasa)
❖ (See jûni-ten – rasetsu-ten)
kosodate yûrei こそだてゆうれい 子育て幽霊
ko (child)
soda.te (rear, raise, bring up, grow up)
kosoda.te (child rearing)
yû (secluded, dark, obscured)
rei (spirit, soul)
yûrei (ghost)

❖ (child rearing ghost)
❖ Ghost of a mother who returns from the grave to raise her living child
mononoke もののけ 物の怪
mono (thing, object)
no (possessive particle)
ke (suspicious, mystery, apparition)

❖ (vengeful ghost or spectre)
❖ As in Studio Ghibli's mononoke-hime
mononoke-hime もののけひめ もののけ姫
mono (thing, object)
no (possessive particle)
ke (suspicious, mystery, apparition)
hime (princess)

❖ (vengeful spectre princess)
môjya もうじゃ 亡者
mô (the late, deceased, dying, perish)
jya | ja (person, someone)

❖ (deceased person)
❖ The dead
môjyafune もうじゃ 亡者船
mô (the late, deceased, dying, perish)
jya (person, someone)
fune (ship, boat, watercraft, vessel)

❖ (ship of the dead)
❖ Appears to those who go fishing the night of the bon matsuri
shinrei しんれい 心霊
shin (heart, mind, spirit)
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (heart spirit)
❖ Preferred term by Japanese spiritualists for spirits
shinrei しんれい 神霊
shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (shrine spirits / divine spirits)
❖ Spirits of shintô shrines
shiryô しりょう 死霊
shi (death, die)
ryô (spirit, soul)

❖ (spirit of a dead person, ghost, departed soul)
❖ Somewhat scarier term for ghost
shôryô しょうりょう 精霊
shô (vitality, energy, vigor, strength)
ryô (spirit, soul)

❖ (spirit of the deceased) -- Buddhist term
shôryôfune しょうりょうふね 精霊船
shô (vitality, energy, vigor, strength)
ryô (spirit, soul)
shôryô (spirit of the deceased)
fune (ship, boat, watercraft, vessel)

❖ Straw boat for one's ancestral spirits to sail in
shôryôuma しょうりょううま 精霊馬
shô (vitality, energy, vigor, strength)
ryô (spirit, soul)
shôryô (spirit of the deceased)
uma (horse)

❖ (spirit horse)
❖ Two dolls of cucumber and eggplant
❖ Made during the bon matsuri
❖ Left near the door of a home, or near the entrance of a cemetery
❖ The cow brings the spirits back to our world, but slowly
❖ The swift horse will take the spirits back to make sure they don't linger
sorei それい 祖霊
so (ancestor, forefather, progenitor)
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (ancestral spirit)
❖ Collective of ancestral spirits which have lost their individualities
❖ Ancestor deified as a kami / spirit of a kami
sôrei そうれい 騒霊
sô (uproar, disturbance, disruptive, make noise)
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (noisy ghost)
❖ Poltergeist
ubume うぶめ 産女
ubu- (bear, give birth, yield, childbirth)
me (woman, female)

❖ A mother ghost who died in childbirth, or died leaving young children behind
ukabarenairei うかばれない 浮かばれない
uka (to float, to be suspended, to rise to surface)
ukabarenai (turning in one's grave; cannot rest in peace) adj.
rei (spirit, soul)

❖ (the restless dead)
❖ Ghosts of those whose body was not properly cared for
yûki ゆうれい 幽霊
yû (faint, dark, dim)
ki (devil, ghost)

❖ (ghost, revenant, spirit of the dead, departed soul)
❖ Literally: dim demon
❖ An evil ghost
zashiki-warashi ざしきわらし 座敷童
za (squat, seat, cushion, gathering, sit)
shiki (spread, pave, sit, promulgate)
zashiki (tatami mat room, formal Japanese room)
warashi | warabe (juvenile, child)

❖ Ghost of a child, often mischievous rather than dangerous
❖ Also called zashiki-bokko
zashiki-bokko ざしきぼっこ 座敷童子
za (squat, seat, cushion, gathering, sit)
shiki (spread, pave, sit, promulgate)
zashiki (tatami mat room, formal Japanese room)
bo | dô (juvenile)
ko (child)
bokko (young boy or girl)
yama-uba やまうば 山姥
yama (mountain)
uba (old woman)

❖ Mountain witch
yuki-onna ゆき 雪女
yuki (snow)
onna (female, woman)

❖ kami of snow, princess of the moon, or a woman who died in the snow
❖ Also called yuki-jorô, yuki-onago, yuki-nyôbô, yuki-hime, yuki-anesan, yuki-musume, yuki-omba, yukinba, yukifuri-baba
yuki-jorô ゆきじょろう 雪女郎
yuki-onago ゆきおなご 雪女子
yuki-nyôbô ゆきにょうぼう 雪女房
yuki-hime ゆきひめ 雪姫
yuki-anesan ゆきあねさん 雪姉さん
yuki-musume ゆきむすめ 雪娘
yuki-omba ゆきおんば 雪乳母
yukinba ゆきんば 雪婆
yukifuri-baba ゆきふりばば 雪降り婆
yuki (snow)
jo (female, woman)
rô (son, counter for sons)
yuki-jorô (snow prostitute / entertainment woman)

yuki (snow)
ona (female, woman)
go | ko (child)
yuki-onago (snow woman / girl)

yuki (snow)
nyô (female, woman)
bô (chamber, room)
nyôbô (wife / court lady)
yuki-nyôbô (snow wife / court lady)

yuki (snow)
hime (princess / young lady of noble birth)
yuki-hime (snow princess / young lady of noble birth)

yuki (snow)
ane (elder sister)
san (honorific)
yuki-anesan (snow elder sister)

yuki (snow)
musume (daughter / young girl / maiden)
yuki-musume (snow daughter / young girl / maiden)

yuki (snow)
om | chichi (milk, breasts)
ba | haha (mama, mother)
omba (old woman, grandma, wet nurse)
yuki-omba (snow old woman, grandma, wet nurse)

yukin (snow-)
ba (old woman, grandma, wet nurse)
yukinba (snow old woman, grandma, wet nurse)

yuki (snow)
fu.ri (alighting, descending)
baba (old woman, grandma, wet nurse)
yukifuri-baba (snow fall old woman, grandma, wet nurse)

Japanese Ghosts & Demons: Art of the Supernatural – edited by Stephen Addiss
Yôkai Attack! The Japanese Monster Survival Guide – Hiroko Yoda & Matt Alt
Yûrei Attack! The Japanese Ghost Survival Guide – Hiroko Yoda & Matt Alt – Matthew Meyer

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