shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
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ToCCharacteristicsInfluencesbutsu

butsu (Buddhism) – 07 / 13 / 2014
butsu ぶつ
(Buddhism, or Buddha)

❖ (Skt: Buddha)
❖ Also called butsu-dô, Bukkyô
butsu-dô ぶつどう 仏道
bukkyô ぶっきょう 仏教
佛教
butsu (Skt: Buddha)
dô (way, course, moral teachings)
butsu-dô (Buddhist teachings)

buk | butsu (Skt: Buddha)
kyô (teach, faith, doctrine)
bukkyô (Buddhism)

buk | butsu (Skt: Buddha)
kyô (teach, faith, doctrine)
bukkyô (Buddhism)

Buddhism originated in India. It was soon syncretized, by the common people, with many elements from the pre-existing Hindu mythology. From India it travelled to Tibet, China and then to Korea. At each stop, it was further syncretized, again by the common people, with local mythic elements. So the Buddhism that first reached Japan, was significantly different from the original teachings of Buddha. Later, various Japanese monks travelled to China and India, in an attempt to learn a "purer" form of Buddhism. When Buddhism first reached Japan, it was mainly adopted by the ruling elite and only later was spread to the common people by hijiri.
Buddhist Deities – butsu, nyorai, bosatsu, myô-ô, tenbu, chisha
jikkai – Ten Worlds of Existence
biku びく 比丘
bi | hi (proportion, match, equal)
ku | kyû (hill, knoll)
biku (ordained Buddhist monk)

❖ (Skt: Bhiksu)
bikuni びくに 比丘尼
bi | hi (proportion, match, equal)
ku | kyû (hill, knoll)
ni (nun)
bikuni (ordained Buddhist nun)

❖ (Skt: Bhiksuni)
butsuma ぶつま 仏間
butsu (Buddha, the dead)
ma (interval, space)
butsuma (Buddhist family chapel, altar room)

❖ (See butsudan)
butsumaku ぶつまく 仏幕
butsu (Buddha)
maku (curtain, bunting)
bustumaku (colored curtains hanging from the eaves of a Buddhist temple)

❖ (See go-shiki-ban)
chisuikafûkû ちすいかふうくう 地水火風空
jisuikafûkû じすいかふうくう
chi | ji (earth, ground)
sui (water)
ka (fire)
fû (air, wind)
kû (empty, vacuum, void)
chisuikafûkû (the five elements)

❖ Buddhist term
❖ Also pronounced jisuikafûkû
Funerals – Buddhist temples usually perform funeral rites. However, there are also shintô funeral rites. (See shinsosai)
ihai いはい 位牌
i (rank, grade, about, counter for ghosts)
hai (label, signboard, medal)
ihai (Buddhist mortuary tablet)

❖ Inscribed with the posthumous Buddhist name of the deceased
❖ Used to designate the seat of a past ancestor
❖ Usually kept on the family butsudan
ihaidô いはいどう 位牌堂
i (rank, grade, about, counter for ghosts)
hai (label, signboard, medal)
dô (public chamber, hall)
ihaidô (Buddhist mortuary chapel)

❖ A room containing multiple ihai
❖ Sometimes found with Buddhist temples, but also maintained by some rich families
ihaijo いはいじょ 位牌所
i (rank, grade, about, counter for ghosts)
hai (label, signboard, medal)
jo | sho (place)
ihaijo (site of a Buddhist mortuary tablet)

❖ Most often found as part of a Buddhist temple
godai ごだい 五大
go (five)
dai (great, large, big)
godai (the five elements)

❖ Buddhist term
❖ See chisuikafûkû
chi
ji
(earth, ground)

❖ One of the five elements
❖ Also pronounced ji
sui すい
(water)

❖ One of the five elements
ka
(fire)

❖ One of the five elements
ふう
(air,wind)

❖ One of the five elements
くう
(empty, vacuum, void)

❖ One of the five elements
hijiri ひじり
(highly virtuous monk, monk, Buddhist solitary, Buddhist missionary)

❖ Itinerant monks who spread Buddhism among the common people
inga いんが 因果
in (cause, factor, be associated with, depend on)
ga (fruit, reward)
inga (cause and effect, karma, fate)

❖ The law of cause and effect
❖ Your actions in this life impact where you are "reincarnated" in the next life
❖ Also called ingaôhô
ingaôhô いんがおうほう 因果応報
in (cause, factor, be associated with, depend on)
ga (fruit, reward)
ô (apply, answer, accept)
hô (reward, retribution)
Ingaôhô (retribution, retributive justice, karma, just desserts, poetic justice, reward and punishment for one's past behavior)
jôdo-shû じょうどしゅう 浄土宗
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
do (soil, earth, ground)
jôdo (pure land)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
jôdo-shû (Pure Land Sect of Buddhism)

❖ Amidism
❖ Emphasizes repetition of the name of amida or the nembutsu as the way into amida's Pure Land
❖ Also called jôdo, jôdo bukkyô
jôdo じょうど 浄土
jôdo bukkyô じょうどぶっきょう 浄土仏教
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
do (soil, earth, ground)

jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
do (soil, earth, ground)
jôdo (pure land)
buk | butsu (Skt: Buddha)
kyô (teach, faith, doctrine)
bukkyô (Buddhism)
hônen ほうねん 法然
hô (method, law, rule, principle, model, system)
nen (sort of thing, so, if so, in that case, well)
hônen (family or surname, given name or forename – gender not specified)

❖ Twelveth century monk
❖ Established jôdo as a separate sect of Buddhism
jôdo shinshû じょうどしんしゅう 浄土真宗
jô (clean, purify, cleanse, exorcise)
do (soil, earth, ground)
jôdo (pure land)
shin (true, reality)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
jôdo shinshû (True Pure Land Sect – of Buddhism)

❖ Emphasizes faith in amida as the way into amida's Pure Land
❖ Tends to be exclusionist
shinran しんらん 親鸞
shin (parent, intimacy, relative, familiarity)
ran (fabulous mythical bird, imperial)
shinran (full name of a particular person)

❖ Early thirteenth century monk
❖ Founder of jôdo shinshû
❖ Established the precedence for a married preisthood
nembutsu ねんぶつ 念仏
nem | nen (wish, sense, idea, thought, feeling, desire, attention)
butsu (Skt: Buddha)
nembustu (prayer to amida)

namu amida butsu (I believe in amida butsu)
namu amida butsu なむあみだぶつ 南無阿弥陀仏
na (south)
mu (nothingness, none, ain't, nothing, nil, not)
namu (hail, glory, I believe, amen)
a (shadow, shade, corner, nook, recess)
mi (all the more, increasingly)
da (steep)
amida (Skt: Amitabha)
butsu (Skt: Buddha)
nichiren shû にちれんしゅう 日蓮宗
nichi (day, sun)
ren (lotus)
nichiren (full name of a particular person, given name or forename - gender not specified)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
nichiren shû (nichiren Sect – of Buddhism)

❖ Emphasizes the myôhô-renge-kyô (Lotus Sutra) as the exclusive way to enlightenment
❖ Also called nichiren shôshû, nichiren-kei sho shûha
nichiren
shôshû
にちれん
しょうしゅう
日蓮
正宗
nichiren-kei
sho shûha
にちれんけい
しょしゅうは
日蓮系
諸宗派
nichi (day, sun)
ren (lotus)
nichiren (full name of a particular person, given name or forename - gender not specified)
shô (correct, justice, righteous)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)

nichi (day, sun)
ren (lotus)
nichiren (full name of a particular person, given name or forename - gender not specified)
kei (lineage, system)
sho (many, several, together, various)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
ha (faction, school, sect)
myôhô
renge-kyô
みょうほう
れんげきょう
妙法
蓮華經
妙法
蓮華経
myô (strange, mystery, miracle, cleverness)
hô (law, principle, doctrine)
myôhô (supreme or marvelous law (of Buddha))
ren (lotus)
ge (flower)
kyô (classic works)
myôhô renge-kyô (the Lotus Sutra)

myô (strange, mystery, miracle, cleverness)
hô (law, principle, doctrine)
myôhô (supreme or marvelous law (of Buddha))
ren (lotus)
ge (flower)
kyô (sutra, teaching)
myôhô renge-kyô (the Lotus Sutra)

❖ Also called daimoku, o-daimoku, hôkke-kyô
daimoku だいもく 題目
o-daimoku おだいもく 御題目
お題目
hôkke-kyô ほうっけきょう 法華
法華経
dai (topic, subject)
moku (look, insight, experience)

o (honorific prefix)
dai (topic, subject)
moku (look, insight, experience)

o (honorable)
dai (topic, subject)
moku (look, insight, experience)

hôk | hô (method, law, rule, principle, model, system)
ke (splendor, flower, petal, shine, luster, ostentatious, showy, gay, gorgeous)
kyô (sutra, teaching) – implied

hôk | hô (method, law, rule, principle, model, system)
ke (splendor, flower, petal, shine, luster, ostentatious, showy, gay, gorgeous)
kyô (sutra, teaching)
namu myôhô
renge kyô
なむみょうほう
れんげきょう
南無妙法
蓮華經
nam' myôhô
renge kyô
なんみょうほう
れんげきょう
na (south)
mu (nothingness, none, ain't, nothing, nil, not)
namu (hail, glory, I believe)
myô (strange, mystery, miracle, cleverness)
hô (law, principle, doctrine)
myôhô (supreme or marvelous law (of Buddha))
ren (lotus)
ge (flower)
kyô (sutra, teaching)

❖ Also pronounced nam' myôhô renge kyô
❖ (To Honour/devote oneself to the Wonderful Law of the Lotus Sutra)
❖ or (Glory to the Sutra of the Lotus of the Supreme Law!)
❖ The myôju that is chanted as the central practice of nichiren shû
nichiren にちれん 日蓮
nichi (day, sun)
ren (lotus)
nichiren (full name of a particular person, given name or forename - gender not specified)

❖ Thirteenth century monk
❖ Founder of nichiren shû Sect of Buddhism
❖ Exclusionist
❖ Also called nichren shônin
nichren shônin にちれん 日蓮聖人
nichi (day, sun)
ren (lotus)
nichiren (full name of a particular person, given name or forename - gender not specified)
shô (holy, saint, sage, master, priest)
nin (person)
shônin (saint, sage, holy man)
obon matsuri – (See bon matsuri)
seishi せいし 生死
sei (life, genuine, birth)
shi (death, die)
seishi (life and death, Skt: Samsara – cycle of death and rebirth)

❖ Transmigration of souls
❖ The cycle of life and death, rebirth and redeath, of delusion and suffering
shimbutsu しんぶつ 神仏
shim | shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
butsu (buddha, buddhas)

❖ kami & Buddha(s)
❖ shintô & butsu
❖ kami & Buddhas are different aspects of the diety
shimbutsukonkô しんぶつこんこう 神仏混淆
shim | shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
butsu (buddha, buddhas)
shimbutsu (gods & buddha(s), shintô & butsu)
kon (mix, blend, confuse)
kô (mixing, turbidity)

❖ Mixture or synthesis of Buddhism & Shintoism
shimbutsushûgô しんぶつしゅうしょう 神仏習合
shim | shin | kami (that which inspires feelings of reverence, awe, gratitude, fear/terror)
butsu (buddha, buddhas)
shimbutsu (gods & buddha(s), shintô & butsu)
shû (learn)
gô (join, fit, suit)

❖ Syncretism of shintô & butsu
shingon-shû しんごんしゅう 真言宗
shin (true, reality)
gon (say)
shingon (true words)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
shingon-shû (Shingon sect – Sino-Japanese esoteric Buddhism)

❖ It has predominantly esoteric teachings, with mystical and occult doctrines and complex practices; such as meditative ritual use of myôju (Skt: Mantra), inkei (Skt: Mudra) and visualization of mandara (Skt: Mandala)
kôbô-daishi こうぼうだいし 弘法大師
kô (vast, broad, wide)
bô | hô (method, law, rule, principle, model, system)
dai (great, large, big)
shi (expert, teacher, master)
kôbô-daishi (full name of a particular person)

❖ Posthumous name
❖ Founder of shingon-shû
❖ Often credited with creating the hiragana syllabry
❖ Called kûkai before death
❖ Also called shûgyô-daishi
kûkai くうかい 空海
kû (empty, sky, void)
kai (sea, ocean)
kûkai (family or surname, given name or forename – gender not specified)
shûgyô-daishi しゅうぎょうだいし 修行大師
shû (discipline, conduct oneself well, study, master)
gyô (going, journey)
shûgyô (ascetic practices, training, practice, discipline, study)
dai (great, large, big)
shi (expert, teacher, master)
sumisen すみせん 須弥山
shumisen しゅみせん
su (ought, by all means, necessarily)
mi (all the more, increasingly)
sen (mountain)
sumisen (Skt: Sumeru / Meru)

❖ Also pronounced shumisen
❖ The mythical mountain home of Buddhist deities
tendai-shû てんだいしゅう 天台宗
ten (heavens, sky)
dai (pedestal, a stand)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
tendai-shû (tendai sect – Mahayana Buddhism with mostly exoteric teachings)

❖ A synthesis of various Buddhist doctrines, including faith in the Lotus Sutra, esoteric rituals, amida worship, and zen; it reconcils Buddhist doctrine with shintô and Japanese aesthetics
dengyô daishi でんぎょうだいし 伝教大師
傳教大師
den (transmit, communicate)
gyô | kyô (teach, faith, doctrine)
dai (great, large, big)
shi (expert, teacher, master)
dengyô daishi (unclassified name)

den (propagate, transmit)
gyô | kyô (teach, faith, doctrine)
dai (great, large, big)
shi (expert, teacher, master)
dengyô daishi (full name of a particular person)

❖ Posthumous name
❖ Founder of tendai-shû
❖ Called saichô before death
saichô さいちょう 最澄
sai (utmost, most, extreme)
chô (lucidity, be clear, clear, clarify)
saichô (full name of a particular person, family or surname, given name or forename – gender not specified)
tera てら
(temple)

❖ Usually Buddhist
zen ぜん
(zen, silent meditation, Skt: Dhyana – profound meditation)

(zen Buddhism, silent meditation, Skt: Dhyana – profound meditation)

❖ zen emphasizes the expression of personal experiential wisdom in the attainment of enlightenment, and direct self-realization by way of meditation and dharma practice, and it de-emphasizes adherence to scriptural knowledge.
bashô ばしょう 芭蕉
ba (banana)
shô (banana)
bashô (Japanese fiber banana / Musa basjoo) – a reference to a favorite banana plant, planted by his disciples, in the yard of one of the huts they built for him

zen practitioner
❖ Seventeenth century poet noted for his haiku (traditionally a poem consisting of 17 haku (mora) in three phrases of 5, 7 and 5 haku)
❖ Born matsuo kinsaku
❖ Also called matsuo bashô
matsuo kinsaku まつおきんさく 松尾金作
matsuo bashô まつおばしょう 松尾芭蕉
matsu (pine)
o (end, lower slope of mountain, end)
matsuo (place name, family or surname)
kin (gold)
saku (make, build, prepare, production)

matsu (pine)
o (end, lower slope of mountain, end)
matsuo (place name, family or surname)
ba (banana)
shô (banana)
bashô (Japanese fiber banana / Musa basjoo)
daruma だるま 達磨
daru (accomplished, reach, arrive, attain)
ma (grind, polish, scour, improve)
daruma (Skt: Bodhidharma)

❖ The founder of the zen sect of Buddhism
❖ The primary aim is personal enlightenment
❖ According to daruma, enlightenment cannot be found in books or sutras or in performing rituals; it is to be found within the self through meditation
❖ Also called Bodhidharma, Dharma
rinzai shû りんざいしゅう 臨済宗
rin (look to, face, meet, confront, attend, call on)
zai | sai (finish, come to an end)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
rinzai shû (rinzai school of Buddhism)
❖ zen sect emphasizing sudden enlightenment thru meditation on kôan
eisai えいさい 栄西
ei (flourish, prosperity, honor, glory, splendor)
sai (west)
eisai (family or surname, given name or forename – gender not specified)

❖ Founder of rinzai shû sect of zen
❖ Credited with introducing green tea to Japan
❖ Also called Myôan eisai, eisai zenji
Myôan eisai みょうあんえいさい 明菴栄西
eisai zenji えいさいぜんじ 栄西禅師
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
an (hermitage)
ei (flourish, prosperity, honor, glory, splendor)
sai (west)
eisai (family or surname, given name or forename – gender not specified)

ei (flourish, prosperity, honor, glory, splendor)
sai (west)
eisai (family or surname, given name or forename – gender not specified)
zen (zen, silent meditation, Skt: Dhyana – profound meditation)
ji (exemplar, expert, master, teacher)
zenji (monk, priest, particularly a high-ranking zen monk honored by the imperial court)

❖ (Literally: zen Master eisai)
hakuin はくいん 白隠
haku (white)
in (conceal, hide, cover)
hakuin (unclassified name)

❖ Revived the rinzai shû school from a period of stagnation
❖ "Listen to the sound of a single hand" is his kôan
❖ Also called hakuin ekaku
hakuin ekaku はくいんえかく 白隠慧鶴
haku (white)
in (conceal, hide, cover)
hakuin (unclassified name)
e (wise)
kaku (crane, stork)
ekaku (unclassified name)
kôan こうあん 公案
kô (public, prince, official, governmental)
an (plan, suggestion, ponder, fear, idea, expectation, worry)
koan (zen question for meditation)

❖ e.g. the sound of one hand clapping
sôtô shû そとしゅう 曹洞宗
sô (cadet, friend)
tô (den, cave, excavation)
shû (religion, sect, denomination)
sôtô shû (soto school – of zen Buddhism)_
❖ zen sect emphasizing gradual enlightenment thru zazen
dôgen どうげん 道元
dô (road-way, way, journey, course, moral, teachings)
gen (beginning, origin)
dôgen (full name of a particular person)

❖ Founder of sôtô shû sect of zen
❖ Also called dôgen zenji, dôgen kigen, eihei dôgen, kôso jôyô daishi
dôgen zenji どうげんぜんじ 道元禅師
dôgen kigen どうげんきげん 道元希玄
eihei dôgen えいへいどうげん 永平道元
kôso jôyô
daishi
こうそじょうよう
だいし
高祖承陽
大師
dô (road-way, way, journey, course, moral, teachings)
gen (beginning, origin)
dôgen (full name of a particular person)
zen (zen, silent meditation, Skt: Dhyana – profound meditation)
ji (exemplar, expert, master, teacher)
zenji (monk, priest, particularly a high-ranking zen monk honored by the imperial court)

dô (road-way, way, journey, course, moral, teachings)
gen (beginning, origin)
dôgen (full name of a particular person)
ki (rare, few, phenomenal)
gen (mysterious, occultness)

ei (eternity, long, lengthy)
hei (peace, even, flat)
dô (road-way, way, journey, course, moral, teachings)
gen (beginning, origin)
dôgen (full name of a particular person)

kô (tall, high, expensive)
so (ancestor, pioneer, founder)
kôso (founder of dynasty or sect)
jô | shô (hear, listen to, be informed, receive)
yô (sunshine, yang principle, positive, male, heaven, daytime)
dai (great, large, big)
shi (expert, teacher, master)
zazen ざぜん 座禅
坐禅
za (squat, seat, cushion, gathering, sit)
zen (zen, silent meditation, Skt: Dhyana – profound meditation)
zazen (seated zen meditation)

za (sit)
zen (zen, silent meditation, Skt: Dhyana – profound meditation)
zazen (seated zen meditation)

❖ Usually in a cross-legged position
This book will not go into great detail on Japanese Buddhism, except as it pertains to minzoku NEO-shintô. Information on Buddhism is readily available from other websites. If you're interested in butsu, this site is an excellent starting point:
GODS of Japan, A-to-Z Photo Dictionary of Japanese Buddhism,
and this site has a number of good articles on Buddhist Deities and shintô kami:
JAANUS (Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System).

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