shiyakujin no hokora
A Book of Little Traditions
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ToCCharacteristicsInfluencesbutsuBuddhist Deities

Buddhist Deities – 06/ 12 / 2014
Ranking – The relative importance of the various Buddhist Deities
jûni-ten – Twelve Heavenly Beings
shi-tennô – Four Heavenly Kings (who protect Buddhism from evil)
aizen myô-ô あいぜんみょうおう 愛染明王
ai (love, affection, favourite)
zen | sen (dye, color, paint, stain, print)
aizen (being drawn to something one loves, amorous passion)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ô (king, ruler)

❖ Buddhist deity
❖ Embodies the idea that earthly desires can be an aspiration to enlightenment; they are not necessarily illusion or cause suffering
❖ Also called aizen-ô
aizen-ô あいぜんおう 愛染王
ai (love, affection, favourite)
zen | sen (dye, color, paint, stain, print)
aizen (being drawn to something one loves, amorous passion)
ô (king, ruler)
amida butsu あみだぶつ 阿弥陀仏
a (shadow, shade, corner, nook, recess / ateji)
mi (all the more, increasingly / ateji)
da (steep / ateji)
amida (Skt: Amitabha)
butsu (Skt: Buddha)

❖ Whoever calls his name with faith shall be reborn in a paradise called the Pure Land"
❖ A Mahayana philosophy that represents the "quick path" to enlightenment
❖ For the coming life in paradise
❖ Also called amida, amida nyorai
amida あみだ 阿弥陀
amida nyorai あみだにょらい 阿弥陀如来
a (shadow, shade, corner, nook, recess / ateji)
mi (all the more, increasingly / ateji)
da (steep / ateji)
amida (Skt: Amitabha)

a (shadow, shade, corner, nook, recess / ateji)
mi (all the more, increasingly / ateji)
da (steep / ateji)
amida (Skt: Amitabha)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, as if, better, best, equal)
rai (come, due, next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Associated with: the west, element – water, sense – taste, color – red
❖ Converts desire, lust and passion to wisdom of discriminating awareness
❖ One of the godai nyorai
ashuku nyorai あしゅくにょらい 阿閦如来
a (flatter, fawn upon, corner, nook, recess / ateji)
shuku (crowd / ateji)
ashuku (Skt: Aksobhya)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, better, best)
rai (next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Associated with: the east, element – earth, sense – sound, color – blue
❖ Converts anger and aggression to mirror-like wisdom
❖ One of the godai nyorai
battabara
bosatsu
ばったばら
ぼさつ
跋陀婆羅
菩薩
bat | batsu (epilogue, postscript / ateji)
ta (steep / ateji)
ba (old woman, grandma, wet nurse / ateji)
ra (gauze, thin silk / ateji)
battabara (Skt: Bhadrapâla)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ Patron of the bath in zen monastaries
daigenshuri
bosatsu
だいげんしゅり
ぼさつ
大權修理
菩薩
dai (great, large, big)
gen (authority, power, rights)
daigen (great protector)
shu (discipline, conduct oneself well, study, master)
ri (logic, arrangement, reason, justice, truth)
shuri (repairing; mending; servicing)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

zen protector of monasteries and Buddhist law
dainichi nyorai だいにちにょらい 大日如来
dai (great, large, big)
nichi (sun, day)
dainichi (great sun)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, better, best)
rai (next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Buddha represented as the sun
❖ Associated with: the center, element – space, sense – sight, color – white
❖ Converts ignorance and bewilderment to wisdom of universal lawfulness
❖ One of the godai nyorai
❖ Also called daihenjô
daihenjô だいへんじょ 大遍照
dai (great, large, big)
hen (everywhere, times, widely, generally)
jô | shô (illuminate, shine)
daîtoku
myô-ô
だいいとく
みょうおう
大威徳
明王
dai (great, large, big)
i (intimidate, dignity, majesty, menace, threaten)
toku (benevolence, virtue, goodness, commanding respect)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ô (king, ruler)

❖ Defier of death
❖ Symbolic of perseverence against resistance
❖ Also called daîtoku bosatsu
daîtoku
bosatsu
だいいとく
ぼさつ
大威徳
菩薩
dai (great, large, big)
i (intimidate, dignity, majesty, menace, threaten)
toku (benevolence, virtue, goodness, commanding respect)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)
dakini-ten だきにてん 荼枳尼天
da (a weed / ateji)
ki (trifoliate orange tree, thorny tree used for hedges / ateji)
ni (nun / ateji)
ten (heavens, sky)

❖ A female or androgynous bosatsu riding a flying white fox
❖ Patoness of magic spells
❖ Frequently conflated with inari
❖ Also called shinko-ô bosatsu, kiko tennô
shinko-ô bosatsu しんこおうばさつ 辰狐王菩薩
kiko tennô きこてんのう 貴狐天王
shin (sign of the dragon)
ko (fox)
ô (ruler, king)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

ki (precious, value, prize, esteem, honor)
ko (fox)
ten (heavens, sky)
nô (ruler, king)
datsueba だつえば 奪衣婆
脱衣婆
datsu (rob, take by force, snatch away, dispossess, plunder)
e (garment, clothes)
ba (old woman, grandma)

datsu (undress, removing, get rid of, take off)
e (garment, clothes)
ba (old woman, grandma)

❖ Skeletal figure who strips the dead of clothing, as they cross the sanzu-no-kawa (river) or shozukawa at the entrance to the land of the dead
❖ She then hangs the clothing in a leafless tree
❖ Has a male companion/counterpart (See ken'eo)
❖ Also called sanzu no baba, shôzuka no baba, jigoku no baba
sanzu no baba さんずのばば 三途の婆
shôzuka no baba しょうずかのばば しょうずかの婆
jigoku no baba じごくのばば 地獄の婆
san (three)
zu | to (route, way, road)
no (possessive particle)
baba (old woman, grandma)

shûzuka (a reference to the shozukawa?)
no (possessive particle)
baba (old woman, grandma)

ji (ground, earth)
goku (prison, jail)
no (possessive particle)
baba (old woman, grandma)
emma-ô えんまおう 閻魔王
em | en (town)
ma (witch, demon, evil spirit)
ô (ruler, king)
emma-ô (Skt: Yama)

❖ Judge of the dead
❖ Ruler of Buddhist hell(s)
❖ (See enma-ten)
❖ Also pronounced enma-ô
fu daishi ふだし 傅大士
fu (tutor)
dai (great, large, big)
shi (gentleman, samurai)

❖ Protector of libraries and collections
❖ Also called waraibotoke
waraibotoke わらいぼとけ 笑い仏
wara.i (laughing)
botoke | hotoke (Buddha)
fuken ふけん 普建
fu (universal, wide(ly), generally)
ken (build)

❖ Son of fu daishi
fujô ふじょう 普成
fu (universal, wide(ly), generally)
jô (turn into, become, get, grow, reach)

❖ Son of fu daishi
fudô myô-ô ふどうみょうおう 不動明王
fu (negative, non-)
dô (move, motion, change, shift)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ô (king, ruler)

❖ Deity who controls unclean oni
❖ Also called fudô (fudo), jôjû kongô
fudô (Fudo) ふどう 不動
jôjû kongô じょうじゅうこんごう 常住金剛
fu (negative, non-)
dô (move, motion, change, shift)

jô (usual, ordinary, normal, regular)
jû (dwell, reside, live, inhabit)
jôjû (permanent residence)
kon (gold, metal)
gô (sturdy, strength)
kongô (Skt: Vajra / indestructible substance, diamond, adamantine)
fugen bosatsu ふげんぼさつ 普賢菩薩
fu (universal, widely, generally)
gen | ken (intelligent, wise, wisdom, cleverness)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ bosatsu of good practice
❖ Appears to those meditating on kyô (Buddhist sutras)
❖ Also called henkitsu
henkitsu へんきつ 遍吉
hen (everywhere, times, widely, generally)
kitsu (good luck, joy)
fukûjôju nyorai ふくうじょうじゅ
にょらい
不空成就
如来
fu (negative, bad, ugly, clumsy)
kû (empty, sky, void, vacant, vacuum)
jô (turn into, become, get, grow, elapse, reach)
ju (concerning, settle, take position, depart, study, per)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, better, best)
rai (next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Associated with: the north, element – air, sense – touch, color – green
❖ Converts jealousy and envy to wisdom required by karma for its completion
❖ One of the godai nyorai
gekka-ô げっかおう 月下翁
ge | getsu (moon, month)
ka (below, down)
ô (venerable old man)
gekka-ô (literally: old man under the moon)

❖ Buddhist deity of marriage
❖ (See enmusubi-no-kami)
❖ Also called gekka rôjin
gekka rôjin げっかろうじん 月下老人
ge | getsu (moon, month)
ka (below, down)
rô (old man, old age)
jin (person)
godai nyorai ごだいにょらい 五大如来
go (five)
dai (great, large, big)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, as if, better, best, equal)
rai (come, due, next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Five Buddha of wisdom or meditation
❖ (See dainichi nyorai, ashuku nyorai, hôshô nyorai, amida nyorai, fukûjôju nyorai)
❖ Also called gochi nyorai
gochi nyorai ごちにょらい 五智如来
go (five)
chi (wisdom, intellect, reason)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, as if, better, best, equal)
rai (come, due, next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)
gozu tennô ごずてんのう 牛頭天王
go (ox, cow)
zu (head)
gozu (ox-head – sandalwood incense?)
ten (heavens, sky)
nô (ruler, king)
tennô (heavenly king)

❖ Deity of disease and plague
❖ (See yakubyôgami)
❖ Deity of the underworld
❖ Conflated with susano-o-no-mikoto
❖ Also called butô, gion tenjin, tennô
butô ぶとう 武塔
gion tenjin ぎおんてんじん 祇園天神
tennô てんのう 天王
bu (warrior, military, chivalry, arms)
tô (pagoda, tower, steeple)

gi (national or local god, peaceful, great)
on (park, garden, yard, farm)
ten (heavens, sky)
jin (kami)

ten (heavens, sky)
nô (ruler, king)
tennô (heavenly king)
hachidai ryû-ô はちだいりゅうおう 八大竜王
八大龍王
hachi (eight)
dai (great, large, big)
ryû (dragon)
ô (ruler, king)

hachi (eight)
dai (great, large, big)
ryû (dragon)
ô (ruler, king)

❖ Eight great dragon kings
❖ (See ryûjin)
hôshô nyorai ほうしょうにょらい 宝生如来
hô (treasure, wealth, valuables)
shô (life, genuine, birth)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, as if, better, best, equal)
rai (come, due, next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Associated with: the south, element – fire, sense – smell, color – yellow
❖ Converts pride and greed to wisdom of ultimate equality of all living creatures
❖ One of the godai nyorai
hotoke ほとけ
hotoke (Skt: Buddha)

❖ hotoke – a general term for a Buddha
❖ (See hotoke – ancestors)
ida-ten いだてん 韋駄天
違駄天
i (tanned leather)
da (burdensome, pack horse, horse load, send by horse)
ten (heavens, sky)

i (difference, differ)
da (burdensome, pack horse, horse load, send by horse)
ten (heavens, sky)

❖ Protecting deity of kitchens, meals, and nourishment in some zen sects
❖ Protects monks and monasteries
jizô bosatsu じぞうぼさつ 地蔵菩薩
ji (ground, earth)
zô (storehouse, hide, own, have, possess)
Jizô (Skt: Ksitigarbha)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ A friend to all, never frightening even to children
❖ For salvation from hell
❖ Especially helps children trying to escape from jigoku
❖ Also called jizô (jizo), daigan jizô, shôgun jizô
jizô (jizo) じぞう 地蔵
daigan jizô だいがんじぞう 大願地蔵
shôgun jizô しょうぐんじぞう 勝軍地蔵
ji (ground, earth)
zô (storehouse, hide, own, have, possess)
Jizô (Skt: Ksitigarbha)

dai (great, large, big)
gan (hope, petition, request, vow, wish)
ji (ground, earth)
zô (storehouse, hide, own, have, possess)
Jizô (Skt: Ksitigarbha)

shô (victory, win, prevail, excel)
gun (army, force, troops, war, battle)
shôgun (general)
ji (ground, earth)
zô (storehouse, hide, own, have, possess)
Jizô (Skt: Ksitigarbha)

❖ Martial aspect of jizô
jûrokurakan じゅうろくらかん 十六羅漢
jû (ten)
roku (six)
ra (gauze, thin silk)
kan (China)
rakan (Skt: Arhats, Jap: arakan – achiever of Nirvana)

❖ The sixteen Buddhist saints
❖ Perfect examples of the monastic way of life
kannon bosatsu かんのんぼさつ 観音菩薩
kan (outlook, look, appearance, condition, view)
non (sound, noise)
kannon (Buddhist deity of mercy; Goddess of Mercy)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

Skt: Avalokitasvara translated to Chin: Guan Yin / Quan Yin
❖ Originally male
❖ She personifies compassion
❖ Symbol of the divine feminine, the divine mother
❖ For salvation in earthly life
❖ The number 33 is sacred to her
❖ Also called kannon, kanjizai, kanzeon, kôzeon
kannon かんのん 観音
kanjizai かんじざい 観自在
kanzeon かんぜおん 観世音
kôzeon こうぜおん 光世音
kan (outlook, look, appearance, condition, view)
non (sound, noise)
kannon (Buddhist deity of mercy; Goddess of Mercy)

kan (outlook, look, appearance, condition, view)
ji (oneself)
zai (exist)

kan (outlook, look, appearance, condition, view)
ze | se (generation, world, society, public)
on (sound, noise)

kô (light, ray)
ze | se (generation, world, society, public)
on (sound, noise)
jûichimen
kannon
じゅういちめん
かんのん
十一面
観音
jû (ten)
ichci (one)
jûichi (eleven)
men (mask, face, features, surface)
jûichimen (eleven-faced)
kan (outlook, look, appearance, condition, view)
non (sound, noise)
kannon (Buddhist deity of mercy; Goddess of Mercy)

Skt: Ekadasamukha (eleven-faced Avalokitesvara)
❖ Eleven-faced Goddess of Mercy
❖ Also called jûichimen kanzeon
jûichimen
kanzeon
じゅういちめん
かんぜおん
十一面
観世音
jû (ten)
ichci (one)
jûichi (eleven)
men (mask, face, features, surface)
jûichimen (eleven-faced)
kan (outlook, look, appearance, condition, view)
ze | se (generation, world, society, public)
on (sound, noise)
ken'eo (ken'eô) けんえお(う) 懸衣翁
ken (suspend, hang, install)
e (garment, clothes, dressing)
o or ô (venerable old man)

❖ Skeletal figure who strips the dead of clothing, as they cross the sanzu-no-kawa (river) or shozukawa at the entrance to the land of the dead
❖ He then hangs the clothing in a leafless tree
❖ Has a female companion/counterpart (See datsueba)
❖ Also pronounced Ken'eô
kishimojin きしもじん 鬼子母神
kishibojin きしぼじん
ki (ghost, devil)
shi (child)
mo | bo (mama, mother)
jin (kami)

❖ Goddess of childbirth and children
❖ Also pronounced kishibojin
❖ Also called kangimo
kangimo かんぎも 歓喜母
kan (delight, joy)
gi | ki (rejoice, take pleasure in)
mo (mama, mother)
kokûzô bosatsu こくうぞうぼさつ 虚空蔵菩薩
ko (void, emptiness)
kû (empty, sky, void, vacant, vacuum)
zô (storehouse, own, have, possess)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ bosatsu of space and potential, memory, and wisdom
❖ Also called kokûyô bosatsu
kokûyô bosatsu こくうようぼさつ 虚空孕菩薩
ko (void, emptiness)
kû (empty, sky, void, vacant, vacuum)
yô (become pregnant)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)
kujaku myô-ô くじゃくみょうおう 孔雀明王
ku | kô (very, great, exceedingly)
jaku (sparrow)
kujaku (peacock)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ô (king, ruler)

❖ Technically being female, a myô-hi (wisdom queen)
❖ Wards off evil from poisoning or calamity
❖ Prayed to in times of drought, poisoning, and disaster
❖ Rides a peacock
❖ Also called kujaku myôhi, kujaku butsumo bosatsu
kujaku myô-hi くじゃくみょうひ 孔雀明妃
kujaku butsumo
bosatsu
くじゃくぶつも
ぼさつ
孔雀仏母
菩薩
ku | kô (very, great, exceedingly)
jaku (sparrow)
kujaku (peacock)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
hi (queen, princess)

ku | kô (very, great, exceedingly)
jaku (sparrow)
kujaku (peacock)
butsu (Skt: Buddha)
mo (mother)
butsumo (mother of buddhas)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)
marishi-ten まりしてん 摩利支天
ma (rub, polish, grind / ateji)
ri (profit, advantage, benefit / ateji)
shi (branch, support, sustain / ateji)
ten (heavens, sky)

❖ Transliteration of (Skt: Marîci)
❖ Protects against all violence and peril
❖ Deity of wealth and prosperity
❖ Also called marishi
marishi まりし 摩利支
ma (rub, polish, grind / ateji)
ri (profit, advantage, benefit / ateji)
shi (branch, support, sustain / ateji)
miroku bosatsu みろくぼさつ 弥勒菩薩
mi (all the more, increasingly)
roku (halter and bit)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ The future bosatsu
❖ Also called jishi
jishi じし 慈氏
ji (mercy)
shi (family name, surname, clan)
jishi (compassionate one)
monju bosatsu もんじゅぼさつ 文殊菩薩
mon (sentence, literature, style, art, decoration, figures, plan)
ju | shu (particularly, especially, exceptionally)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ bosatsu of Wisdom
❖ The Voice of Buddhist Law
ni-ô におう 仁王
ni (virtue, benevolence)
ô (ruler, king)

❖ A pair of protectors who guard against evil outside the temple gate at Japanese Buddhist temples
❖ Similar to the koma inu at the entrance to a shintô shrine
❖ Also called ninô
ninô にのう 二王
ni (two)
nô (ruler, king)
agyô あぎょう 阿形
a (flatter, fawn / ateji)
gyô (shape, form, style)

❖ Located on the left side of the entrance with mouth open
❖ Also called kongô rikishi
kongô rikishi こんごりきし 金剛力士
kon (gold, metal)
gô (sturdy, strength)
kongô (Skt: Vajra – indestructible substance, diamond, adamantine, thunderbolt, Indra's weapon, Buddhist symbol of the indestructible truth)
riki (power, strong, strain, bear up, exert)
shi (gentleman, samurai)
rikishi (sumo wrestler, strong man)
ungyô うんぎょう 吽形
un (bark, growl / ateji)
gyô (shape, form, style)

❖ Located on the right side of the entrance with mouth closed
❖ Also called misshaku rikishi
misshaku rikishi みっしゃくりきし 密遮力士
mis | mitsu (secrecy, minuteness, carefulness)
shaku | sha (intercept, interrupt, obstruct)
riki (power, strong, strain, bear up, exert)
shi (gentleman, samurai)
rikishi (sumo wrestler, strong man)
oni おに
(orge, demon, ghost)

❖ They serve in jigoku under emma-ô to punish sentenced wrongdoers to expiate their sins
❖ (See oniyôkai)
rokuji myô-ô ろくじみょうおう 六字明王
roku (six)
ji (syllable)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ô (king, ruler)

❖ Guardian of the foundation of Buddhist law
rokujidaimyôju ろくじだいみょうじゅ 六字大明呪
roku (six)
ji (syllable)
dai (great, large, big)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ju (spell, charm)

❖ The six syllables of the Buddhist creed – om ma-ni pad-me hum
seishi bosatsu せいしぼさつ 勢至菩薩
sei (forces, energy, military strength)
shi (climax, arrive, proceed, reach, attain, result in)
bo (sacred tree)
satsu (Skt: Buddha)
bosatsu (Skt: Bodhisattva)

❖ bosatsu of Strength and Vigor
shaka しゃか 釈迦
釋迦
sha (explanation / ateji)
ka (ateji)
shaka (Skt: Sakyamuni – sage of the Sakyas)

sha | shaku (explain / ateji)
ka (ateji)
shaka (Skt: Sakyamuni – sage of the Sakyas)

❖ The historical Buddha — Gautama Siddhartha
❖ Also called shaka nyorai, shakamon, shakamoni, shakamuni, shakukamuni butsu, kudon shittatta
shaka nyorai しゃかにょらい 釈迦如来
shakamon しゃかもん 釈迦文
釋伽文
shakamoni しゃかもに 釋迦文尼
shakamuni しゃかむに 釈迦牟尼
shakukamuni
butsu
しゃかむに
ぶつ
釋迦牟尼
kudon shittatta くどんしったった 瞿曇悉達多
sha (explanation / ateji)
ka (ateji)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, better, best)
rai (next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

sha (explanation / ateji)
ka (ateji)
mon (sentence, literature / ateji)

sha | shaku (explain / ateji)
ka (attending, entertainer / ateji)
mon (sentence, literature / ateji)

sha | shaku (explain / ateji)
ka (ateji)
mon (sentence, literature / ateji)
ni (nun / ateji)

sha (explanation / ateji)
ka (ateji)
mun (pupil (eye) / ateji)
ni (nun / ateji)

sha | shaku (explain / ateji)
ka (ateji)
mun (pupil (eye) / ateji)
ni (nun / ateji)
butsu (France / ateji)

ku (surname)
don (cloudy weather, cloud up / ateji)
kudon (Gautama – the family name of Buddha)
shit | shitsu (all, completely / ateji)
tat | tatsu (accomplished, attain / ateji)
ta (many, frequent, much / ateji)
shittatta (Shiddaruta / Siddhartha)
shô-ten しょうてん 聖天
shô (holy, saint, sage, master, priest)
ten (heavens, sky)
shôten (Skt. Ganesha)

❖ Deity of wealth
❖ Also called kangi-ten
kangi-ten かんぎてん 歓喜天
kan (delight, joy)
gi | ki (rejoice, take pleasure in)
ten (heavens, sky)
usûsama
myô-ô
うすうさま
みょうおう
烏枢沙摩
明王
u (crow, raven)
sû (hinge, pivot, door)
sa (sand)
ma (chafe, rub, polish, grind, scrape)
myô (wisdom, bright, light)
ô (king, ruler)

❖ Heavenly king responsible for purifiction from material pollution, especially those associated with child birth
❖ Guardian of the benjo (toilet)
❖ (See benjo-gami)
❖ Also called usûshima
usûshima うすうしま 烏芻渋摩
u (crow, raven)
sû (grass cutting, hay)
shi | shibu (astringent, have diarrhea)
ma (chafe, rub, polish, grind, scrape)
yakushi nyorai やくしにょらい 薬師如来
yaku (medicine, chemical)
shi (expert, teacher, master)
nyo (likeness, like, such as, as if, better, best, equal)
rai (come, due, next, cause, become)
nyorai (Skt: Tathagata – perfected one / suffix of high-ranking Buddhist deities)

❖ Master of remedies / medicine

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